Le Proteine nella Farina

Proteins in Flour

The proteins present in flour play a fundamental role in bread making, influencing the viscoelastic properties of the dough and the final quality of the bread and focaccia. Let's delve deeper into the protein composition of flours, on four main types of proteins:

  1. Albumins and Globulins :

    • They constitute approximately 20% of the total proteins present in the caryopsis.
    • They are predominantly localized in the seed coat, in the aleurone cells and in the germ.
    • These proteins are water soluble and perform active physiological functions, despite being relatively scarce in the endosperm.
  2. Gliadin and Glutenin :

    • They represent approximately 80% of the proteins in the caryopsis and are collectively known as prolamins, rich in proline and glutamine.
    • Prolamins accumulate exclusively in the endosperm and function as storage proteins.
    • Gliadin and Glutenin are crucial for the formation of gluten, the visco-elastic mass that gives wheat flours their unique ability to form doughs with excellent viscoelastic properties.
    • Gliadin is responsible for elasticity while Glutenin contributes to the toughness of the dough.

The balance between gliadin and glutenin in gluten is decisive for the characteristics of the dough, influencing the elasticity and toughness of the final product.

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