Gli Enzimi


Enzymes are proteins that catalyze, or accelerate, chemical reactions within cells. In baking, enzymes play a crucial role in the transformation of ingredients and in optimizing the characteristics of the finished product. Let's look at some of the most important enzymes in the baking process:

  1. Amylases :

    • These enzymes break down starch into maltose and other simpler sugars during fermentation. The activity of amylases is essential to provide the energy source necessary for the yeast to produce carbon dioxide, essential for the leavening of the dough.
  2. Proteases :

    • Proteases break down gluten proteins, affecting the structure and elasticity of the dough. This can be advantageous in some recipes where greater extensibility is desired, but must be carefully controlled to avoid too weak a dough.
  3. Lipase :

    • These enzymes modify lipids, influencing the texture, flavor and shelf life of bread. The modifications made by lipids can improve the softness of the crumb and contribute to the perceived freshness of the product.
  4. Xylanases :

    • They act on hemicelluloses, improving water absorption and increasing the volume of the dough. Xylanases are particularly useful for improving the handling of dough and for increasing the stability and volume of bread.

These enzymes can come naturally from ingredients, such as flour, or they can be added as improvers. The controlled use of enzymes allows bakers to obtain desired textures, volumes and flavours, as well as improving the workability of the dough and the quality of the finished product.

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